THE CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS
Written by: Tito David Valdez
Copyright 1997 David Valdez. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy,
recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the author.
David Valdez at INMATE Classified
written this report due to the torrent of requests I have received on the subject
of prison life and inmates. Being a former University college student myself,
I too searched for the "right" information when it came to doing my
own term papers or essays. Thus, I have compiled information for you in a manner
which meets the standard criteria of most term-papers and also provide a bibliography
for your further research. Of course, since I do not have access to microfiche
machines or the Net at my fingertips, friends and family have been extremely
helpful in assisting me in obtaining information for this report from 1996 to
This report will give you the "inside" look into prison life. The overall opinion is based on my prison experience since my arrest on December 2, 1993, until the present. I was a middle class law abiding citizen who thought prisons were country clubs and that we should lock up criminals and throw away the key. However, my view has changed dramatically once I became a prisoner myself.
My goals in this paper is to convince you that prisons are not country clubs and that our current sentencing laws are in need of reform. I would hope you will be enlightened by the facts an awakening to the true nature of reality.
PRISON LIFE INSIDE C.D.C.
the crime rate on the rise in California and the passage of legislation like
the "THREE-STRIKES LAW", our state prison system is packed beyond
capacity. With an annual budget of $3.6 billion, California taxpayers often
complain that prisons are like country clubs, since inmates get three square
meals a day and higher education more than even some law abiding citizens can
hope for. California has the second largest prison system in the world, second
only to China (See FOOTE Page 1). It is difficult to grasp that our state has
a larger prison population than any other country in the world with the exception
of China. This report will examine the California Department of Corrections,
exploring the taxpayers view that prisons are like country clubs. The general
public tends to think of prisons as place where inmates have free and unlimited
access to education, fitness, and entertainment all while being fed, clothed,
and sheltered using tax dollars. While some of these services are available,
I will show that the average California prison does not serve simply as a vacation
spot for criminals, but in fact, life inside is difficult and dangerous. If
the state prison industry were standardized, it would not only run more efficiently,
but would cost less and result in a lower repeat offender rate.
Taxpayers tend to complain about the money spent on the system, because as the California Department of Corrections (CDC) states in its web page, it costs more to house an inmate than to educate a child. Currently, it costs $21,509 per year to house an inmate however, the bulk of this price is not "three meals, television, and health care." Instead, it is for the security of the institution guarding inmates around the clock. Security accounts for forty seven percent of this cost, or $10,240 per inmate, per year. As CDC states in its web page, inmates "must be supervised twenty four hours per day, seven days a week." The prison staff must oversee the inmates movements "from the time they wake up, during meals, when working or in class, during free time in the dayroom, and believe it or not, when they are asleep" (See CALIFORNIA Page 1).
In 1994 the Little Hoover Commission, an independent agency created to oversee state government operations, studied the California Department of Corrections. According to their report, the goal of the system is to rehabilitate and punish inmates but does it? The answer is NO! While the system does punish, it does little to rehabilitate, and many feel the punishment is often worse than the crime in terms of time served behind bars.
The programs needed for drug and alcohol rehabilitation have been virtually eliminated, "only a tiny fraction 3% of prisoners in need of drug treatment receive it, " (SEE FOOTE Page 6). A judge can send a person to state prison for up to five years for possession of rock cocaine, but there is little or no drug rehabilitation offered to that person. (See CALIFORNIA Page 22). As FOOTE states in his report, it is unfortunate that the "dead" time behind bars cannot be utilized for training, education, drug treatment, and other therapies for inmates, the large majority of whom will be returned to the free world within a few years."(See FOOTE Page 6) Without some kind of training, these offenders will be back inside a few years, continuing to cost the state money. One report likened the idea of sending a drug user who has been convicted of committing robberies to finance his habit to state prison, to "a maid sweeping dirt from the floor under the living room rug. The dirt from around the house has not been removed. The problem has not been solved, it is just out of sight." (SEE MARZINSKY Page 6). He then goes on to say of the prisoners that eventually get out.
"Many of them are getting out in worse shape than they went in, much angrier. Many have been raped, beaten, robbed, and psychologically brutalized by other inmates to levels unimaginable to the average working man." (See MARZINSKY Page 9).
This is not conducive to a productive return to society. Though television talk shows and media leads us to believe that inmates are getting free higher education at taxpayer expense, this is simply not the case. However, some kind of standardized educational system is needed within the prison system, since many inmates have turned to a life of crime due to lack of education. As the Little Hoover Commission reported in 1994, "Fifty-six percent of male inmates cannot function at a ninth grade reading level and "20,000 don't speak English and the vast majority never have developed skills to hold a job successfully." (See CALIFORNIA Page 108)
A large percentage of the cost to house an inmate is health care, which accounts for sixteen percent, or $3,484 per year. This covers a full range of health care services medical, dental, and psychiatric. (See CALIFORNIA Page 1). However, many groups have deemed the medical care as poor and inconsistent, and say many inmates have died due to lack of correct care. (See SWARD Al). "Sick Call" is a system that allows staff members to meet with inmates to determine whether or not they really need to see a doctor or specialist. Even with this system in place, doctors are often over-booked which causes a delay in treatment if the prison does not have the services needed or if they must make arrangements with outside doctors or hospitals. Additionally, there is often a delay in diagnosing or treating mental illness simply because some prison guards hold the belief that the majority of illness inmates claim to have are feigned or the guards "believe that sick prisoners get what they deserve." (See SWARD Al). Many costly lawsuits have resulted against CDC due to poor medical attention.
There is a program called "Compassionate Release" which allows Judges to free inmates that have been deemed "terminally ill (within six months of death) and poses little risk to the public." (See CALIFORNIA Page 147). This not only relieves the State of the tremendous medical costs involved in caring for these types of inmates, it allows the inmate to die at home. In order to make this program less controversial, another program known as "Medical Parole" has been suggested to allow the State to place the inmate back in prison if the illness goes into remission.
Inmate Support, or the basic necessities such as meals, clothing, religious programs, and leisure activities, account for 29% of the cost, or $6,246 per inmate per year. This category, together with the Inmate Work/Training category which accounts for 6% or $1,347, is perhaps the most controversial due to the policy that gives an inmate a day off their sentence for each day worked. But, as CDC says, "inmate labor keeps the prison run- ning." (See CALIFORNIA Page 2). There are forty-five vocational programs available through out the system that lead to skilled jobs in prison industries, as well as the education classes offered. Inmates can also complete high school or take English as a second language while in prison.
After exploring the cost of housing inmates, the next logical step is to look at life on the inside what it is really like. While incarcerated, a prisoners life consist of waking up early, eating a bland breakfast, getting a sack lunch, and then a bland dinner. Inmates are allowed to have a 13" Color TV (Supplied with their own money or by loved ones) in their cells, as well as items like radios, cassettes, CD players, and guitars. Sodas, ice cream, and assorted snack foods are available for purchase from the prison canteen. The Recreation Department offers weight lifting areas, basketball, volleyball, and handball. There is also a law library. As for publications, inmates can receive any newspaper or magazine as long as the content does not contain perverted sexual positions or any information which would be a threat to the security of the institution.
Inmates work thirty-five to forty hours a week at various jobs that help keep the prison running. The amount of time spent in the cell depends on the prison. If an inmate is working, he will spend about 15 hours in his cell. If the inmate is in the "hole", he will spend about 23 hours a day in the cell.
Prison life is dangerous, sometimes unsanitary, and is not like a country club. Col. Harry S. Bachstein, a trial lawyer who has defended many clients in prison said, "Prison systems do a remarkable job of covering up embarrassing things like murders committed before the watchful eyes of their guards." He says seniority in prison is everything, and tells of a newly admitted "fish" sleeping without a bed, blanket, or pillow." (See BACHSTEIN Page 2)
Prison guard violence against inmates is high as well, with twenty-seven inmates being shot and killed by guards between 1989 and 1994 (See REINING B10). This number is almost three times the number of inmate shootings in other states. Regulations against using firearms to stop fistfights were finally tightened, reducing the number of shootings dramatically.
According to an article in the Los Angeles Times, until recently, inmates that were members of rival gangs were "forced to mingle in small exercise yards, a practice that has led to a high number of fights and shootings." (See ARAX Al) Another article stated quite simply, "basically it's a war between the Crips and Southern California Mexicans." (See MORAIN A21). A recent newspaper article even accused prison guards of "setting up deadly fights among inmates."(See GUNNISON Page 6/Z5).
The rise in violence among the races and rival gangs has been attributed to the overcrowding, as well as the fact that many privileges have been revoked by new legislation due to voter hate towards criminals. Lance Corcoran, Vice President of the California Correctional Peace Officers Association, said, "Prison gangs have become younger and more violent." (See MORIAN A21). And the overcrowding problem is so extreme that California state prisons are operating at a 194% occupancy rate! California state prisons are crowded beyond capacity a system intended to hold eighty thousand inmates is bulging at the seams with over 147,000 inmates! "Prisoners are being housed in double and triple bunk in day rooms and gymnasiums." (See SANDOVAL M4) There have been numerous lawsuits filed by inmates and their families regarding the inhumane treatment of inmates.
A prisoner by the name of Abdullah has published a document on the Internet called, "The Black Peoples Prison Survival Guide. In it, he describes a social hierarchy consisting of prison administrators, guards, and finally inmates. The guard he says are mostly, "former military people, ex-cops, or people who couldn't qualify for the police departments. They thrive on having authority." He describes the guards as being brutal and racist. (See ABDULLAH Page 7). In 1995, a Pelican Bay Prison inmate was awarded millions of dollars in a settlement from the state after he was "forced into a tub of 145 degree water." which caused his skin to literally peel off and "hang in clumps around his legs." A nurse testified that, during this episode, a guard said, "It looks like we're going to have a white boy before this is through, his skin is so dirty and rotten it's all fallen off." (See BOURKHALTER Page 17).
Prison guards are only required to have a high school diploma but they are paid an average of $55,000 equal to that of a California Highway Patrol Officer, a position which requires a considerably more rigorous screening and training process. Abdullah says that the prisoners themselves are divided into groups based on race, ideologies, and even gang affiliations.
To Abdullah, punishment and reform are not the goals of prison, but degradation, "dress codes, serial numbers, buzzers, and strip searches, inadequate privacy and lists of rules too long to remember are used as a means to humiliate, tear down, and annihilate prisoners psychologically." (See ABDULLAH Page 11). He describes prison itself as drab, dirty, and a "fertile environment for pests, rodents, and diseases transmitted by human contact." (See ABDULLAH Page 12) In 1995, a Judge ruled that the Pelican Bay prison in Crescent City, California "suffered needless beatings, brutality and medical neglect," and that "a pattern of brutality against inmates .. was condoned or purposely overlooked by supervisors." (See POGER B5). Even the Little Hoover Commission sites use of "unwarranted brutality and excessive force." (See CALIFORNIA Page 140).
In early 1996, a United Nations report criticized the Pelican Bay State Prison for being. "inhuman and degrading." Reporting that some inmates were made to stay in their windowless cells for up to twenty two hours per day. The report stated "a substantial number of prisoners were said to be suffering from mental illnesses caused or exacerbated by their confinement in the Unit." (See U.N. A15) In one prisoners lawsuit against Pelican Bay, this practice accused the State of "using isolation and sensory deprivation as a form of psychological torture." (See PODGER B5). An investigation by the San Francisco Chronicle in 1994 estimated that of the 125,000 inmates incarcerated at that time, 10,000 were mentally ill, 1,100 were HIV positive, and 150 suffered from Tuberculosis (See SWARD Al).
Young inmates, however, still seem to glorify the idea of prison going to prison has been compared to joining the Army. Speaking of friends who had gone to prison and been released one young man said, "when they come back, I saw that they got a lot of respect. And I wanted that. When you are locked up for a long time and you show up one day, everyone wants to be the first to be seen with you." (See FARR A01).
Thought most research available shows that inmates with strong family support during their incarceration have a lower repeat offender rate than those who do not, California's state prison system appears to separate families whenever possible by sending the inmates to remote prisons many times hundreds of miles from home.
The Visiting room has dress codes barring things such as revealing clothing, skirts with slits in the back, under wire bras, jeans, and metal buttons. The room is monitored by guards as well as by casino cameras. Visiting days are Saturday and Sunday however, some prisons offer 4 day a week for visits.
Misbehaving inmates, or inmates that have been involved in fights get thrown into "the hole" or Administrative Segregation. While in the "hole", inmates are allowed to only wear a T-shirt and boxer shorts. Wedding bands are mailed home and since there is no policy for returning them once the inmate gets out of the "hole", the inmate does not get his wedding band back. They are given powdered toothpaste and a half-inch toothbrush. They are not allowed a comb, and sometimes not even a blanket. Even inmates that have done nothing wrong and are simply witnesses in a court proceeding get placed in "the hole" to separate them from the rest of the prison population and to "protect" them.
As part of the "tough on crime" wave hitting Sacramento, in February of 1996, most California inmates had their overnight Family Visits taken away. Contrary to popular belief, Family Visits "Conjugal Visits" do not consist of only sexual visits with inmate wives. Family visits are overnight visits for inmates and their wives, children, parents, sisters, and brothers. It is an opportunity for the inmate to interact in a semi-natural environment with loved ones. While sex with the spouse is a natural part of this situation, it is not solely for sexual purposes. These visits were taken away as a demonstration of how "tough" California is on crime, and were praised as a money-saving device. In fact, this is not true the Inmate Welfare Fund paid for the construction and maintenance of the two bedroom apartment used for Family Visits. Wives and family members bring their own toiletries and food, and are responsible for cleaning the apartment to its original condition after the visit or else future visits would be prohibited. The apartment is on prison grounds, fenced, and audibly monitored twenty four hours a day. Guards are able to walk in at any time, unannounced and inmates are drug tested on the way out the next day. Taxpayers pay no part of the Family Visit Facility, yet they were cut as part of an effort to save money.
Male inmates are not the only ones who must deal with these types of conditions. With the largest population of female inmates and the worlds largest women's prison, California prison guards are still mostly men. There have been reports made of "women forced to submit to strip searches while male guards were present, and the male guards staring at and harassing women as they showered or used the toilet." (See GUNNISON Page 6 /Z5) One Humans Rights Watch report relays female inmates tales of hearing "All you bitches and whores get into your rooms, " over the loudspeaker at times. (See GUNNISON Page 6/Z5)
Inmates are not automatically given phone privileges, they must sign up to make phone calls to loved ones, and they cannot receive phone calls. In the event of a family emergency, a message is relayed through the Chaplain. All calls made by inmates must be made collect. MCI, the exclusive long-distance telephone service for CDC, charges inmates families an additional $3 surcharge for every call originating from the prison. Many feel this fee is unfair, as the prisoners are a captive market and have no choice but to use the MCI phones. In addition to this, as a protection for victims and Judges, all calls originating from a state prison are interrupted every 15 seconds with a recording stating, "This call has originated from a California State Prison" which leaves very little opportunity for intimate conversations with loved ones.
In my opinion, the abolition of the indeterminate sentencing act in 1976 was a tremendous step backward for the system. An indeterminate sentence is one that is a term range, such as 15 years to life, with their actual term set on a case-by-case basis by the Adult Authority." Though opponents of the indeterminate sentencing charged the Adult Authority with making unfair and subjective decisions regarding length of prison terms and holding prisoners who had committed similar crimes for widely different periods of time," the range gave prisoners an incentive to work, educate themselves and behave in order to get early parole. (See CALIFORNIA Page 14)
The Determinate Sentencing Act of 1976 was designed to be uniform regarding length of sentences, but with it, it 'explicitly abandoned the long-standing purpose of prison as rehabilitation and instead established punishment as the stated goal.' (See CALIFORNIA Page 15). It was added that over time, legislation has greatly complicated sentencing. The Little Hoover Commission as well as inmates and their family members, maintain that Determinate Sentencing is "inequitable to both victims and offenders, offering little in the way of certainty and nothing to as sense of fairness." (See CALIFORNIA Page 17)
Fifty-seven percent of California inmates are serving under determinate sentences for non-violent crimes such as, burglary, grand theft auto, auto theft, and drug offenses ranging from possession of rock cocaine to sale of marijuana. This means that California treats violent and non-violent offenders the same way "although the propensity for them to endanger public safety is quite different." (See CALIFORNIA Page 47). Prior to the Determinate Sentencing Act., the system of Indeterminate Sentencing was founded on the idea that the "direction of the lives of prisoners could be changed while they were in the hands of the State through education, counseling, and training and that inmates should not be released until they were certifiably rehabilitated. (See CALIFORNIA Page 91)
A surprising revelation is that "huge numbers of prisoners spend less than a year behind bars." (See CALIFORNIA Page 51) This is due to credit for jail time served and the state law that allows prisoners to receive one day off their sentence for each day on a work assignment. The money spent to house these type" of inmates could be significantly reduced by sentencing them to some type of community service, subjecting them to large fines, or placing them in rehabilitation programs when appropriate. This would also free up many beds for violent offenders. "Work assignments do not necessarily mean the inmate is actually working, as long as the inmate is on a waiting list for an assignment he can still receive credit. Perhaps contributing to the public perception that California is too soft on crime is the fact that inmates can generally work a six or eight hour day, and those few hours count for an entire day off their sentence.
I believe several of the solutions offered by the Little Hoover Commission are the best for putting an end to the over- crowding problem, as well as lowering the repeat offender rate. In December 1992, the inmate population was 57% non violent offenders "burglars, thieves, drug offenders, and those who possess weapons or drive under the influence of controlled substances." (See California Page 13). According to a study by the RAND Corporation, "property and drug offenders are good candidates for rehabilitation," therefore these types of non-violent offenders should "learn skills and come out productive citizens." (See CALIFORNIA Page 24)
The number of any type of rehabilitation programs job training drug rehabilitation, and basic high school education needs to be an increased and improved system statewide. Research has shown that an inmate who receives an education and works while incarcerated is less likely to return to prison after release. Unfortunately, "the Department of Corrections has no mandate to rehabilitate, only to punish." (See CALIFORNIA Page 24). Violent offenders, it has been found, are not good candidates for rehabilitation and therefore "the most appropriate candidates for long prison terms." (See CALIFORNIA Page 45). The Little Hoover Commission has also suggested to continue the work-credit system, but to add the stipulation that if parole is violated, then the credit earned would be re-imposed. (See CALIFORNIA Page 82)
Often, the jobs that are available to inmates are not jobs they can put to use once they return to society. This is due to a number of factors, from prison industries using out-dated equipment because it is labor intensive (which creates inmate jobs) to skills that are simply not needed on the outside- like license plate making. For the most part, inmates are not tested or screened for level of skill or education to determine their best area of use. Certain inmates are eligible to participate in fighting fires and most people in the general public do not know that in one year "inmate firefighters put in three million hours fighting fires at $1 an hour and saved the State $24 million in salaries and other costs." (See CALIFORNIA Page 105) Though these inmates must be carefully screened, fire fighting is beneficial both to the inmate and the State, as it gets the inmate outdoors and a break from the monotony while being paid a fraction of what regular firefighters make.
Another logical suggestion placed by the Little Hoover Commission was a policy of working only part-time and then going to school the remainder of the day. This would "create" more jobs as existing jobs would be split in two, as well as encouraging inmates to further their skills via education. In fact, the Commission recommends using full-time work as an incentive to further education. If a ninth grade reading level were required in order to get much sought after full-time work, more inmates would have reason to pursue their education.
Currently, the highest level of education available to an incarcerated individual is a high school diploma or a General Equivalency Diploma. Additionally, there are more than forty- five vocational training programs for skills ranging from "silk- screening" to "plumbing". (See CALIFORNIA Page 118). Several years ago, certain institutions offered community college and even some university courses, however, those programs were eliminated due to budget cuts and public discontent.
There is currently little or no pre-release planning to help inmates learn important job hunting skills. Under the parole system, an inmate could not be released until he could prove he had a pre-release plan. California is releasing inmates directly from Security Housing Units, "the maximum-security segment of the prison system that much of the public would equate with solitary confinement" with no means or knowledge of how to survive crime- free on the outside, to city streets. This had led to criminals reverting to their old ways immediately in some cases, in others, simply withdrawing and suffering mental breakdowns. (See CALIFORNIA Page 72) One of the hopes of the criminal justice system, and indeed, society, is that when criminals have done their time and are released back into society, they will live a clean life and be a productive member of society. With this in mind, the prison system should enact programs to help insure inmates get the pre- release training they need to function legally on the outside. As suggested by the Commission, instead of releasing those Security Housing Unit inmates back into society directly, they should first be filtered through the general population, and if all goes well, returned to society with a pre-release plan. Sadly, the inmates that need the work and education programs the most in order to become productive members of society those in Security Housing Units are not eligible for those programs.
Author Mark Fleisher said, " On the street, it's too easy to get into trouble... when that happens, each criminal is given his own "ticket home". Then, after years in prison, they're released again. Back to the street life, back to poverty, back to crime, back to prison. So the cycle continues for high risk offenders, but at whose expense? (See FLEISHER Page 23).
The current system of warehousing prisoners does little to rehabilitate and contribute to public safety. As is stands now, an inmate has no incentive to keep his nose clean while incarcerated and may even learn new "tricks of the trade" while inside. The power of sentencing, according to many, must be taken out of the hands of politicians, and placed in the hands of a committee that cannot be effected directly by legislation, which will prevent the confusion and problems that resulted from the Determinate Sentencing Act.
The Little Hoover Commission recommended several alternatives to state prison for certain non-violent offenders: electronic monitoring, intensive supervision by a probation or parole officer, community drug treatment, community service work along highways and in parks, fines, and restitution to the victims and to the State. (See CALIFORNIA Page 57-58). These alternatives would free up bed space for violent offenders who cannot be integrated back into society, while still punishing criminals for their crimes.
There appears to be an inconsistency throughout the system. The Little Hoover Commission calls this a "long standing practice of allowing each prison to operate independently." (See CALIFORNIA Page 136). Essentially, this allows each prison to be run in a different manner to have different policies about anything from attire of visitors, to rehabilitation programs available within each individual prison. The Little Hoover Commission says the "end result is a system that has allowed appalling abuse of some prisoners, lax standards for daily operations, and question- able practices that leave the State open to expensive liability." (See CALIFORNIA Page 136). Conformity within the system on virtually all policies must be a goal of those that control the California Department of Corrections, in order to provide the safest, most productive form of rehabilitation to prepare a prisoner for his or her return to society. Without standardization throughout the system, we will continue to see "hit and miss" results with high repeat offender rates.
When the general public is faced with the issue of being tough on crime, extreme cases are used to illustrate the need for tougher policies, however, when blanket policies are enacted, they effect not only the extreme cases, but the regular inmates and their families as well. Most important is, we need to remember, that while these people have committed crimes against society, they are still human beings, and must be treated as such. If we do not treat these people as human beings, how can we possibly expect them to return to society and lead a productive life when all they know is crime and hatred?
I strongly believe if the average Californian were aware of the conditions that exist within the state's prison system, if they were to see the glaring inconsistencies, that the system is not working, and if they were to see that inmates are not merely "vicious animals who have committed heinous acts," but that they are PEOPLE, it would facilitate an understanding, even an element of compassion for the overcrowding and brutalities suffered. We must remember that inmates are people. People that committed crimes, but people nonetheless, who should be treated as humans. They are people that need to be REHABILITATED, not locked up and forgotten!
To close this report, I strongly agree with the findings of the Little Hoover Commission. I believe that we should revise the sentencing laws so as to rehabilitate property and drug offenders rather than simply locking them up and forgetting about them. We should also instigate programs that would teach inmates vocational skills they can use on the outside which would enable them to get a job and become a productive member of society once released. We should require that all inmates be able to read at a ninth grade level before they are granted full time work, and we should offer the education to enable them to reach that goal. Hand in hand with the idea of equipping them with job skill and the ability to read, would be the implementation of a mandatory pre release plan for all inmates.
With the California prison population growing yearly, California taxpayers must make a decision: either accept the fact that more prisons need to be built because crime rates will continue to rise if we do nothing to rehabilitate or standardize the system, educate inmates, and provide them with job skills so that when they get out, they have useful, legal means of earning a living. Perhaps the most effective use of tax dollars in the prison system would be to earmark more money to rehabilitation and job training for parolees, so that they may truly become productive members of society and not repeat offenders. Additionally, the idea has been posed to not incarcerate all criminals - those that could live under either House Arrest or still function outside without being a danger to anyone in society, should be let out to make room for truly violent offenders, and again allow them the chance to honestly rehabilitate themselves. I am confident that this paper enabled you to have a clearer understanding of the problems facing the prison system, as well as the reasons behind the outrageous cost of housing inmates.
"The Black Peoples Prison Survival Guide: 11 August 1995: Internet, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Arax, Mark "Prison Officials Unveil Plan To Halt Gang Fights" Los Angeles Times 28 December 1996: A1.
Bachstein, Col. Harry S. "Going to Jail and Buying American" 1996 Internet, http://members.aol.com/bachll/adventurer.htm
Bourkhalter, Holly J. "Torture in U.S. Prisons" The Nation 3 July 1995: Page 17
"The Cost of Housing an Inmate" 1997: Internet, http://www.cdc.state.ca.us
California Little Hoover Commission Putting Violence Behind Bars: Redefining the Role of California's Prisons 18 January 1994.
Christensen, Kim "Update: Killings by Prison Guards Low; Trends: California's Tightened Regulations on Use of Lethal Force to Break Up Fights Appear to Be Working" Orange County Register 9 March 1997: G01.
Farr, Jory "Families of Prisoners on the Hook for High Phone Bills" Press-Enterprise 25 February 1997: A04.
Farr, Jory "The State of Imprisonment" Press-Enterprise 23 February 1997: A01.
Fleisher, Mark S. Warehousing Violence Newbury Park: Sage, 1989
Foote, Caleb "The Prison Population Explosion: California' Roge Elephant." Center on Juvenile & Criminal Justice June 1993: Pages 1 18.
Gunnison, Robert B. "The Golden State's Hidden Human Rights Abuses Women In California Prisons Face Sexual Harassment" San Francisco Chronicle 16 February 1997: 6/Z5
Marzinsky, Jerry A. "Programs For Large Scale Correctional Populations Index: An Inexpensive, Practical, Measurable System!" 25 March 1996.
Morain, Dan "1 Inmate Killed, 13 Hurt in Prison Fight; Melees: Blacks and Latinos Battle With Makeshift Weapons at New Folsom. Dead Prisoner Is Among 6 Shot By Guards" Los Angeles Times 28 September 1996: A21
Podger, Pamela J. "Prison Management Blamed For Abuse" Fresno Bee 12 January 1995: B5.
Prison Law Web Page "Medical Care In Prison" 13 April 1997. Internet: http://www.wco.com/-aerick/cdc.htm
"Reigning in Prison Guards" Orange County Register 13 March 1997: B10.
Sandoval, Joe "Space Shortages In State Prisons" Los Angeles Times 23 March 1997: M4
Sward, Susan and Bill Wallace "Health Crisis Behind Bars: Ailing Prison Inmates Suffer From Lack Of Care" San Francisco Chronicle 3 October 1994: A1
"U.N. Report Criticizes Unit at Pelican Bay: Prison Conditions Described as 'Inhuman'" San Francisco Chronicle 28 February 1996: A15.